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Akoya Pearl
This is the classic in the world of pearls. Akoya pearl was the first type of pearl that could be successfully cultivated. Cultivation started at the beginning of the twentieth century. Nowadays most of these pearls come from Japan. China and Vietnam are secondary sources. The Akoya pearl oyster (Pinctada martensii) is used to grow Akoya pearl; cultured Akoya pearls are generally between 2 and 9 mm in diameter, and they are particularly attractive due to their intense shine and their wide spectrum of pale shades, ranging from white to pink to cream and silver gray.

An alloy is a metal mixture consisting of two or more components. Alloys are named after their base metal. Some attributes of the base metal can be improved by melting it into an alloy. Pure gold would be too soft to use as a jewel metal; Mixing it with other metals to create a gold alloy makes the resulting metal harder and more practical to wear as jewelry. Metals that are often included in gold alloys include silver, palladium, and copper. These additions also affect the color: silver makes gold paler; Copper gives a reddish hue. The color spectrum for gold alloys varies from white to greenish-yellow to red. The amount of base metal contained in an alloy is expressed in carats.

When the Greek god Dionysus became all too insistent on looking for a nymph named Amethyst, the girl was transformed into a sparkling gem by the goddess of chastity. This is the story that Aristotle tells to explain the origin of amethyst and its supposed ability to protect the wearer from drunkenness. This protective attribute is also the origin of the name of the stone: the Greek word "améthystos" means "not drunk". Amethyst belongs to the quartz group and has a rich shade from purple to pale red-violet. Heat treatment changes color (see citrin). The most important sources of amethyst are in southern Brazil, Uruguay and Madagascar.

According to the legend, aquamarines come from the coffers of mermaids. The stone's name comes from Latin and means 'water of the sea'. It earns this name through its vivid, shiny hue, ranging from pale blue to deep blue and blue-green. The most avidly sought-after hue is deep blue. An aquamarine of this colour is also known as a 'Santa Maria'. Aquamarine belongs to the beryl group. Brazil and Madagascar are the most important sources.

Baguette cutting is a special type of cutting precious stones. Its shape is a narrow rectangular with a distinct, elongated board around which two rows of elongated facets are arranged in phases. This shape was developed in 1925 and first was used only for diamonds; then was used for other stones as well. The baguette cut is particularly suitable for transparent stones.

Ball chain
A chain of scheè consists of numerous ball-shaped elements that have been threaded on a thread. If individual spheres are made of metal, they are usually hollow. Solid stone balls, pierced with a hole to accept wire thread, can also create beautiful effects.

The band is the most important part of a finger ring. It is the circle that surrounds the finger and therefore embodies the fundamental shape of the ring. The band of a ring can be flat or rounded. It is usually equipped with a head on which, for example, settings for diamonds or colored stones can be affixed.

Baroque pearl
Not all oysters produce a perfectly spherical cultured pearl. Just the opposite: most pearls do not develop into flawless spheres. When growing in various directions and unusual shapes, they are called "baroque" or "out of shape" pearls. Depending on their specific shape, some of these pearls can be in high demand because they can be transformed into unique pieces of jewelry.

Bayonet closure
The bayonet closure is a safe and innovative closure for miners. A clasp, which often serves as an ornamental centerpiece, has small holes with hinges on two of its sides. These holes accept poles that are attached to each end of the necklace. The poles are inserted into the holes, then a twist is given to lock them in place. This principle allows you to wear the same closure with different necklaces, or to adorn a necklace with any of the different different centerpieces.

The word "beryl" is used to describe a group of minerals whose members can occur in a variety of colors. If a beryl is green, it is called emerald. If it is blue, it is known as aquamarine. The family also includes the golden beryl, which is yellow in color, the eliodor, which has a greenish-yellow hue and the morganite, which is pink. Other color variants are known as "noble beryl". During the Middle Ages, aquamarines were finely polished and inserted into the panoramic windows of reliquaries, where they served as lenses to magnify the contents of the container. This practice led to the use of beryl as a visual aid in the fourteenth century. The German word for glasses comes from the word "beryl.

Bicolor is the term used for a combination of two shades of gold. The combination of yellowand white gold, which creates beautiful color games and design accents, is a particularly common two-tone. Other tones can also be combined, such as red gold and white gold.

Birth stones (zodiac stones)
Since classical antiquity, the belief that there is a relationship between particular precious stones and certain zodiac signs led people to assign particular minerals to each sign of the zodiac. + It is believed infact, that the stone associated with each sign has a positive and strengthening effect on people who were born under the corresponding sign. Aries (March 21 – April 20) - red jasper, carneol. Taurus (April 21 – May 20) - carneol, rose quartz. Gemini (May 21 - June 21) - citrine, tiger's eye. Cancer (June 22 - July 22) - crysoprase, aventurina. Leo (July 23 – August 23) - rock crystal, gold quartz. Virgo (August 24 - September 23) - citrine, yellow agate. Libra (September 24 - October 23) - orange citrin, smoked quartz.

Bouton pearl
The word French "bouton" means "button". A bouton pearl has the shape of a button, that is, it is round and somewhat flattened. Portable oysters do not necessarily produce perfectly spherical pearls. Much more frequently, oysters produce oval or irregularly shaped pearls. The latter are known as "baroque pearls". In addition to the classic spherical shape, pearls in other symmetrical shapes (e.g. bouton pearls) are also sought.

Braided chain
The woven chain derives its name from its characteristic appearance. These chains look like meticulously combed hair braids. Their individual elements intertwine alternately and very closely, creating a symmetrical appearance.

When a diamond is cut with the brilliant cut, it is referred to as a "brilliant"; it was invented in 1910 as a further development of the old cut. The brilliant cut is considered the perfect cut for diamonds because it optimally shows their intrinsic focus and brightness. The proportions of a brilliant are precisely defined:seen from the side, a brilliant looks like two octagonal pyramids facing each other. Seen from above, the stone appears round. The upper side has at least 32 facets arranged at precisely defined angles around the table. The lower part has at least 24 facets. The word "brilliant" can only be used for round diamonds that have been given the brilliant cut.

The word "brilliance" comes from the verb French "briller", which means "to shine". Brilliance describes the brightness of a gemstone, i.e. the overall effects of reflected light emerging from the surface of the stone. The brilliance depends on the reflection of the incident light, which, in turn, depends on the refractive index of the stone and the consistency of the surface of the stone, but is independent of the color of the stone. The higher the refraction, the stronger the glow. The diamonds are cut with the aim of achieving the ideal state of complete and total upward reflection of all incident light.

Cable chain
The cable chain and the link chain are two of the most classic forms of chain; theircharacteristic are oval connections, which are arranged alternately in horizontal and vertical orientation. The cable chain is one of the strongest types of chains. It serves as the basic form for many variations: for example, the outer surfaces of individual connections can be flattened (flat cable chain) or slightly rounded (rounded cable chain).

The cabochon cut the numbers between the so-called "smooth cuts" in which the smooth surface of the stone is not divided into facets. Also known as the "mugel cut", the cabochon is the oldest known cut for gems. Connoisseurs distinguish between ball-shaped cabochons, which resemble a hemisphere prone in the side view, and conical cabochons, which climb steeply to a rounded point in the side view.

The word "carat" is also sometimes written with a "K", but is always abbreviated "ct". Carat has been used since classical antiquity as a unit of weight for jewelry stones and pearls. Carat, should not be confused with "carat" as a degree of purity for gold alloys. Both words derive either from the Greek word "keration" (the fruit of the carob tree) or from the kuara seed of the African coral tree. One metric carat weighs 0.2 grams. Jewelry enthusiasts are particularly interested in the weight, i.e. the number of carats, of diamonds. A legendary type of diamond is the "one carat": that is, a diamond of 6.5 mm in diameter and an exact weight of 0.2 grams. A "half carat" measures 5.2 mm in diameter. A "two-carat" has a diameter of 8.2 mm.

The carré cut, also known as square cut, is a quadratic form for transparent gemstones. Its quadratic table is usually surrounded by a terraced edge consisting of two rows of facets.

China Pearl
Many years ago, Chinese pearl farmers began growing coreless freshwater pearls in oysters that they grew in tributaries and canals of the Yangtse river system. Chinese freshwater pearls have an attractive, almost spherical shape. The largest can have a diameter of 10 mm. The color spectrum ranges from white, pink and green to intense shades of red and lilac. In the process of cultivation, some living tissue that forms mother-of-pearl is grafted into the body of the oyster so that these pearls have no core and consist entirely of nacre.

A "choker" is a necklace that clings close to the neck.. A short, tight-fitting chain made of meshes or a necklace that hugs the neck made of one or more strings of pearls can be described as a "choker". All pearls in a pearl choker are identical in size.

CIBJO is the international professional confederation of the jewellery industry. Founded in 1926, the organization has been called "Confédération Internationale de la Bijouterie, Joaillerie, Orfèvrerie, Perles et Pierres" since 1961. All major industrial nations are members. Among the most important tasks of CIBJO is to designate exact names and descriptions for precious stones and pearls. These official designations are listed in the so-called "Blue Book".

Citrine is a member of the quartz group. The synonyms are "gold topaz", "Madeira topaz" or "Spanish topaz", although these citrines only superficially resemble true topaz because they share a color similar to that gemstone. The name "citrine" comes from the lemon yellow color, although the most avidly coveted citrines are clear, from bright yellow to red-red. Citrine is a hard, non-fissile, and relatively durable stone. The main sources are Brazil, Madagascar and the United States.

Collier de Chien
A "collier de chien" is a tight, wide or multi- strand necklace. It was the most popular piece of jewelry during the 1920s and played an important role in the fashions of the late fifteenth and mid-eighteenth centuries. Nowadays the form collier de chien is interpreted in many different ways. Necklaces of this type are also available with pearls, diamonds or colored stones. The name comes from the French language and literally means “dog collar”.

The technical term "color" is one of the four quality criteria (the "4 Cs") according to which the value of a diamond is determined. Stones are judged in comparison with color scales. Most of these scales have 12 quality grades. The highest grade is "very fine white", which is used to describe diamonds that are absolutely colorless. Diamonds of this quality are identified by the letters "D" and "E" or by the term "river". "Fine white" diamonds are identified by the letters "F" and "G" or by the phrase "Top Wesselton". White stones are identified by the letter "H" or the word "Wesselton". Most diamonds are delicately dyed in color, often with a slightly yellowish cast.

Colored stone
The phrase "colored stone" is used for all precious stones except diamonds and agates. On the other hand, colorless gemstones are sometimes included in the category of "colored stones". The term "colored gemstone" is also often used to emphasize their preciousness.

Connected necklace
The connected necklace is a classic and very feminine chain. It consists of round, bulky elements that are alternately connected horizontally and vertically to each other. The appearance of this type of chain varies depending on the thickness and size of its individual connections.

Corals grow in the ocean at depths of 300 meters or less. Soft polyps very slowly build branched structures by excreting a calcesque substance from their disc-like feet. The coral is therefore the scaffolding of the polyps, which live in small indentations in the branches. Coral quality jewelry, which grows mainly in the Mediterranean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, occurs in a wide variety of red and pink hues. Especially desirable are the deep red variety, which experts call coral "dull blood" or "brown", and a dusty pink variety known as "angel skin".

Corundum is essentially colorless. If there are traces of other elements (mainly iron and chromium), the corundum can display each color of the rainbow. Colorless corundum is a precious gemstone; after centuries of confusion in nomenclature, the international convention has now agreed to use the word "ruby" to describe the red corundum and use the word "sapphire" to name corundum stones in all other colors. The word "corundum" comes from a language spoken in the Indian subcontinent, where the language a similar word meant "hard stone". This etymology is really appropriate because with a hardness of "9" on the scale of the Mohs, the corundum is the second hardest stone in the world, surpassed in hardness only by diamond. Corundums are found on every continent.

The Cullinan is the "Star of Africa". The largest rough diamond ever found was named after Sir Thomas Cullinan, the director of a South African mine where this diamond, which weighed 3,106 carats, was discovered in 1905. Nine important, large diamonds and 96 smaller stones were cut from this rough diamond. Large diamonds have consecutive numbers. The largest of the nine, called Cullinan I, weighs 530 carats and is the largest cut diamond in the world, a distinction that earned it the shrewd "Star of Africa". It adorns the scepter of the Queen of England and is kept in the Tower of London.

Cultured pearl
The cultured pearl is the English equivalent of the term that is most frequently used in Austria and Switzerland to describe cultured pearls. Pearls are typically grown by inserting a core (usually a turned spherula made of natural mussel shell) into a bivalve along with a piece of living tissue that produces mother-of-pearl. The bivalve is returned to water, where it is continuously monitored and regularly purified. The implanted tissue continues to produce mother of pearl, with which it covers the core. The bivalve takes at least 18 months to produce a cultured pearl.

The cut is the treatment given to the surface of a coloured stone or diamond. A good cut can reveal the gem's intrinsic beauty, colour and sparkle. Lapidary art was probably first practised in India. Before and in the 15th century, the treatment given to gemstones usually consisted exclusively of polishing their surfaces with natural crystal or cleavage. During the 15th century, faceted cuts became widely known. Coloured stones are polished by abrasion with polishing discs made of lead, bronze, copper or tin. Diamonds can only be cut from other diamonds. The toughness of a diamond varies depending on the particularities of its crystal planes and its different axes. Many of the steps involved in polishing and cutting coloured stones and diamonds cannot be carried out by machines and must be done manually.

Cut heart
The cut heart permeates diamonds and colored stones with a touch of romance. As the name implies, a heart-cut stone has the shape of a heart. To achieve this, a triangular or heart-shaped table is surrounded by numerous facets that enhance the twinkle and glow of the gem.

De Beers
De Beers is the name of the company that dominates the diamond production and diamond trade worldwide. De Beers controls about 65 percent of the market. The company was founded in 1880 by Cecil Rhodes, a Briton who had bought prospecting interests in South Africa. Ernst Oppenheimer bought De Beers in 1929: his descendants continue to serve on the board of directors of this South African diamond concern. Their main commitment is to prevent extreme changes in diamond prices by controlling the market.

The quality of a diamond is evaluated according to four criteria, the so-called "4 C". These criteria are: color, clarity (purity), cut (glossy) and carat (the weight of the stone expressed in carats). This mineral is also known as the "king" or "queen" of gems. For centuries, the diamond has embodied hardness, immortality and beauty. Our modern word "diamond" comes from the ancient Greek word "adamas," meaning "invincible." In fact, this precious stone is the hardest of all minerals. It ranks higher ("10") on the Mohs hardness scale. The diamonds are made entirely of pure carbon. Diamonds are currently mined mainly in South Africa, South America, Russia, China, Australia, and more recently also in Canada, where diamonds can be found in many different colors. Rough stones are most frequently cut in the brilliant cut.

Dresden, often also known as the "Green Dresden", is among the most famous diamonds in the world. Its fame comes from its unique combination of size and beauty. The stone weighs a majestic 41 carats, and its charm is above all for its unusual color: a deep and perfectly clear green. Dresden is cut into drops. This diamond probably comes from India, but its initial history is unknown. It is believed to have been purchased by Friedrich Augustin II, Elector of Saxony, for 400,000 thalers in 1742. He kept the diamond in his treasure chamber, the legendary "Green Vault" in Dresden, where the stone (which now belongs to the Dresden State Art Collection) is still preserved today.

Drip cutting is a particularly fascinating type of cut. As its name implies, the drip cut gems were cut and polished into a drop shape. The table also has the shape of a teardrop, and it is further emphasized by the design of the surrounding facets. The names "briolett", "poire" (French for "pear") and "pampel" are also used to describe stones that have been cut into drops.

Emerald is the name given to the most precious stone of the beryl group. The English word "emerald" comes from the Greek word "smaragdos", which means "green stone". Most emeralds are permeated with cracks and inclusions of the hairline. Perfect gemstones with a rich dark green color are rarities and are more valuable than diamonds of comparable size. The most beautiful specimens come from Colombia and generally have colorless inclusions. The beautiful green color is cloudier in emeralds from almost all other sources in other parts of the world. This cloudiness, however, is no longer considered a gap and is known as "jardin". Emeralds are often cut and polished in the so-called terrazzo cut or emerald cut.

Emerald cut
Emerald cut is the term used to describe an octagonal row cut that is most commonly used on emeralds because this cut better complements the character of the gemstone. Emerald has only moderately high refraction and is relatively delicate. In addition, most emeralds occur in elongated crystalline forms: the elongated shape of the emerald cut conforms to the natural shape of the gem and thus minimizes the volume of stone that is lost during cutting and polishing. At first glance, the emerald cut appears rectangular. Its octagonal shape is created by dismolding the corners. The unveiled corners protect the stone from damage during the setting process.

Enamel is pulverized glass that has been melted at high temperature so that it melts onto a metal substrate. The raw material for enamel is a colorless vitreous mixture that acquires its various shades from the presence of metal oxides. Enamel powder can be dry sprinkled through a sieve or painted wet on a substrate applied as a viscous paste composed of powder, water and vegetable glue. There are four different types of enamel: matte enamel; transparent enamel; translucent, shimmering "opal" enamel; and the painter's enamel, in which fine powder of opaque color is painted on and then oven-melted on an enamelled background.

The verb "engrave" comes from the French word "graver" and describes the act of cutting scripts or ornamental motifs into metal, glass or stone surfaces. The beginnings of this extremely ancient technique can be traced back to the Bronze Age. An incision can be raised or probed;nowadays engraving can be done manually (by an engraver using a burin or engraving needle) or by machine. Precious stones can also be engraved, in which case they are known as "intaglios" or "cameos". You can individualize a jewel by engraving it with the initials of its owner.

A facet is a planar side surface that has been cut or polished on a three-dimensional stone or metal body. The facets enhance the visual effect of a faceted gemstone. Faceted cuts consist of a large number of small planar surfaces. This method of processing precious stones has been commonly practiced since the 15th century.

Diamonds occur in every color of the rainbow. The most common shades are yellowish, and such stones are valued together with colorless diamonds (the so-called "whites"). Other colors such as green, blue, rosé and red are rarer and are collectively described as "fancy colors". The most frequent colors are brownish colors and black. More rare and valuable colors include various shades of rosé, red, green and blue.

Fantasy cut
There are no limits to the imagination of lapidaries when it comes to the diversity of cuts that can be given to precious stones. Stars, tears, triangles, gems: an infinite variety of shapes have been devised, many of which are new interpretations of well-known shapes. Collectively known as "fantasy" or "designer" cuts, they are used in the design of diamonds and colored stones. Many of these cuts have their own specific names, although many of these names are known only by a few specialists.

Fire opal
As the name suggests, this gem is truly born on fire. Fire opals are mainly found in hollow cavities and crevices in mountains of volcanic origin. The name is also due to the intense orange color of the stone, which shines with shades ranging from yellow to red. Although it belongs to the opal group, opal focus is not opalescent (that is, it has no shimmer of rainbow color). Most fire opals are milky and cloudy. Only the most valuable specimens are clear and transparent. Fire opals can be cut into a faceted shape, which is an unusual form for cut opals. The stone, however, is inherently delicate. The most important deposits are located in Mexico.

Frame setting
The setting of the frame is like a frame that surrounds and holds a stone firmly. The metal is wrapped in a thin strip all around the stone. The adherent upper edge is pressed slightly to the edge of the stone, thereby firmly holding the gem in the desired position.

Freshwater pearl
Freshwater cultured pearls are very popular nowadays. Previously small and irregular in shape, recent advances in cultivation have made it possible to reach pearls grown with fresh water of 10 mm in diameter and almost spherical shape. This variety of pearl is particularly attractive due to the diversity of colors in which it occurs. The spectrum ranges from white, pink and green to intensive shades of red and lilac. To grow these pearls, no lifeless hazel is inserted into the bivalve: nothing is inserted except a small piece of living tissue that produces mother of pearl. As a result, freshwater pearls do not have a central core and consist entirely of mother of pearl. Freshwater pearls are currently imported almost exclusively from China, hence their alternative name: "pearls of China".

The garnet is a collective appellation that is used to describe more than ten jewelry stones that share a similar crystalline structure. The word "garnet" is typically associated with a red stone, but this is true only for the two most common members of the garnet group: the porope and almandine "carbuncle stones" and the almandine. Like their relatives (for example, green tsavorite and brown-yellow exonite), these have good hardness and high refraction. Garnets can be found on every continent.

Precious stones are non-metallic materials characterized by the beauty and transparency of their colors, their hardness and/or their rarity. In the past, it was common practice to distinguish between precious stones (which are particularly clear and hard) and semi-precious stones (which are non-transparent, less resistant and less valuable). This distinction, however, makes little sense, so the terms "gemstone" and "jewelry stone" have become more common in modern usage. The weight of a gemstone is measured by carat (0.2 grams). Precious stones are found in rocks and golds. Transparent gemstones are often cut into faceted shapes (e.g. "brilliant cut") to accentuate their inherent play of light. Translucent and matte gemstones are usually cut into a smooth dome shape (cabochon).

Gemology is the science of precious stones. The German language has two allies for this specialty: "Gemmologie" and "Edelsteinkunde". Despite the name, people who are active in this discipline are dedicated to the identification and technical processing of precious stones and the study of methods that can be used to distinguish between natural precious stones on the one hand, and synthetic or imitation stones on the other.

The abbreviation GIA refers to the Gemmological Institute of America, which is based in Carlsbad, California. The institute is recognized worldwide as an authority in the field of gemology and classification of diamonds. The GIA is also active in science, research and teaching. As an educational institution, it offers highly respected gemological training. Founded in 1931, this non-commercial organization operates branches all over the world. GIA is headquartered in Vicenza, Italy and London, England.

Gold is one of the first metals used by mankind. Humans have been fascinated by gold since time immemorial. The metal has a bright yellow color, is immune to rust and is extraordinarily ductile and malleable. The name "gold" comes from the old German high word "ghel", which means "shimmering" or "gleaming". The chemical symbol for gold, "Au", comes from the Latin word for this metal, "aurum". Pure gold is very soft: before it can be used in jewelry, it must be mixed with other harder metals to create a harder alloy. The eligibility of other metals also affects the color of the alloy: the addition, for example, of silver gives gold a greenish cast.

The goldsmith profession is a traditional career with a very long history. Already in the third millennium BC, the ancient Egyptians had already begun to cultivate the goldsmith's art: ancient craftsmen worked artfully gold and silver, along with various precious stones and pearls, to create jewelry, tools, vases and other objects. Techniques such as hammering, throwing, chasing, punching, engraving, granulation and glazing have been practiced since ancient times. Nowadays, the profession of goldsmith is an art and a craft that requires an apprenticeship lasting at least three years.

The classification or evaluation of diamonds is known as "graduation". The assessment shall be conducted according to objective, internationally recognised criteria. According to these criteria, diamonds are classified pursuant to their color, clarity (purity), cut and carats (weight). These four criteria are summarised under the abbreviation "the 4 Cs".

Grumetta knitted chain
The chain of curb connections is placed next to the cable chain as one of the most classic chain forms. A chain of curb links is made by taking a chain with links that are connected in an ordinary way and then twisting it until the links become deformed. Each individual link therefore seems to have been twisted in opposite directions. Finally, most of the chains of curb connections are then flattened so that their connections acquire the characteristicangles.

A hallmark is the printed or perforated symbol that is hammered onto the surface of each piece of jewelry. The official distinctive sign provides information about the fineness of the precious metal. The regulations for the use of such trademarks are defined by law. The fineness number indicates how many precious metal parts are contained in 1,000 parts of the alloy. For example, "50" means that 750 units of pure gold are contained in every 1,000 parts of the gold alloy. (See also "karat.")

Hope Diamond
The 'Hope Diamond' is one of the most legendary gems of all time. Formerly the property of the French royal court, it is the largest blue diamond in the world and is believed to have originally weighed 112 carats. After being re-cut several times, it currently weighs around 45 carats. The diamond is believed to have been stolen from a Hindu temple in India and is therefore known to bring bad luck to its owner. A banker named Henry Philip Hope bought it in London in 1830. The jeweller Harry Winston gave the Hope diamond to the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. in 1958. It is on display there today.

Hope Pearl
The Hope Pearl is named after its former owner, a London banker named Henry Philip Hope. During the first half of the nineteenth century, H. P. Hope amassed a large collection of precious stones that included, among his other valuable objects, the famous Blue Hope Diamond. The baroque pearl Hope is cylindrical in shape, weighs about 454 carats and measures about five centimeters in length. Most of this pearl is white in color, although on the one hand the white hue changes to a bronze-colored tone.

Inclusions in gemstones are like Mother Nature's fingerprints. Almost no gemstones are completely free of inclusions. Most gems contain embedded foreign bodies or have breaks in their crystalline structure. Inclusions can be materials of the same type (e.g. a diamond that includes inside a diamond) or other materials (e.g. sapphire zirconines). The term "inclusion" is also used to describe cracks, hairline cracks or gaps that can be filled with liquid or gas. Inclusions can detract from the color and appearance of a stone, but many inclusions are not visible to the eye. More recently, inclusions have been recognized as a decorative element because they can cause exquisite play of light (e.g. cat's eyes and stars). Some inclusions are so typical of a particular mineral that they can be used as proof of the authenticity of the stone.

Internally Flawless
Internally Flawless is a grade of quality for diamonds and describes the degree of clarity of a stone. This criterion is very rigorously evaluated and classified according to an internationally recognized evaluation system. "Internally impeccable" is the highest grade in this system and is abbreviated "IF". Stones of this grade have no inclusions whatsoever. A diamond is considered "internally impeccable" only if an expert's eye cannot detect any inclusion under tenfold magnification. Such perfect diamonds are rare exceptions.

Jardin is a technical term that refers to emerald. This noble gem of the beryl group is usually cloudy due to inclusions or fractures of the hairline. These imperfections are acceptable as long as they do not detract from the beautiful green color of the stone. In these cases, the lively play of colors caused by the inclusions is described as "jardin" – the French word for "garden" – and is regarded as evidence of the genuineness of the stone. In no other variety of precious stones are there imperfect and so rare specimens.

When written with a "c", the word "carat" refers to the units used to measure the weight of jewelry stones. When written with a "k", the word "karat" is a qualitative designation used to describe the fineness of a metal. Each jewelry metal is an alloy that contains different metals in various quantities. Pure gold, for example, is too soft to be used for jewelry;for this reason, gold (and some other precious metals) are typically mixed with other metals. The number of carats indicates the amount of precious metal in the alloy. For example, the phrase "14-karat gold" means that 14 units of pure gold are contained within every 24 units of the alloy.

Keshi Pearl
Random chance plays a role in the cultivation of pearls. Sometimes the oyster expels the core that has been inserted into it to stimulate the production of pearls, while at the same time keeping within its shell the piece of fabric that produces mother of pearl. When this occurs, an irregularly shaped pearl (known as a "keshi pearl") is formed. Smaller pearls are no larger than a pinhead, hence the name "keshi", which is the Japanese word for "poppy seeds". Some keshi pearls, however, can grow as large as 10 mm in diameter. Keshi pearls occur in all species of bivalves that are used for pearl cultivation.

Kimberley Mine
The Kimberley mine was once an extremely productive diamond mine in South Africa. The diamonds were mined by the open-pit method between 1871 and 1908. Without the use of machinery, the workers of this mine dug the largest hole ever dug by human hands. Appropriately called the "Great Forum", it measures 460 meters in diameter and its mast is 1,070 meters deep. Today, however, the lower half of the tree is filled with water. Diamonds weighing a total of 14.5 million carats (almost three tons) were mined. The mine was abandoned in 1914 after a short period of underground mining.

The name "Koh-i-Noor" means "Mountain of Light" in Persian and suggests what an extraordinary stone this famous diamond really is. Like the equally legendary Hope Diamond, the Koh-i-Noor traces its provenance to the mines of India. The Koh-i-Noor was first mentioned in 1304, when it had a round shape and supposedly weighed 108 carats. Other sources claim that it actually weighed 186 carats. The gem entered the hands of the Persian conqueror Nadir Shah in 1739:after the country came under British rule, Queen Victoria received the gem in 1850. Reshaped into its current oval shape, the diamond now weighs more than 105 carats. It has been inserted into the crown of the Queen of England and is kept in the Tower of London.

Kunzite, a variety of spodumene, comes in pale pink and pale purple to dark purple tones with a pinkish veil. Kunzite has a bright, vitreous glow. This attractive mineral is relatively delicate. Kunzite is extremely fissile. Brazil leads the world as the leading supplier of kunzite.

Lapis lazuli
The opaque gemstone known as "lapis lazuli" is a mixture of various minerals. The main component is lasurite, which gives this stone its typical shimmering blue color. Lapis lazuli usually has streaks or patches of other minerals running through it. The best quality lapis lazuli colouring is regularly distributed; Often, however, lapis lazuli is stained or striped. The stone was used as a jewelry stone in prehistoric times. Lapis lazuli was ground into powder and used as a natural, ultramarine blue pigment during the Middle Ages. Lapis lazuli is moderately difficult. The stone is sensitive to heat, perfume and cosmetics. Afghanistan is its most important source.

Luster is the most important criterion in assessing the value of a pearl. This technical term describes the reflection of light refracting on the many layers of aragonite in the mother of pearl, thus creating a glow that seems to radiate from inside the pearl. Reflected light and glow should seem as energetic and deep as possible, two qualities that are associated with a thick layer of mother-of-pearl. The value of a pearl is directly proportional to the intensity of its shine.

Mabé pearls
Mabé pearls (also known as "cultured blister pearls") are hemispherical pearls particularly suitable for use in brooches and ear jewelry. To produce them, several hemispheres of plastic or wax are glued inside the shell of an oyster. As the animal grows, it covers these hemispheres with layers of mother of pearl. To collect the mabé pearls, the mussels are opened and the pearls removed with a milling machine. The hemispherical shape is removed, the empty space is filled, and the flat back surface is sealed with a mother-of-pearl disc. Most mabé pearls are grown within the South Sea mussels of the Pinctada maxima species. The beads grow to sizes between 10 and 20 mm. Depending on the shape of the artificially inserted shape, pearls can be oval, teardrop-shaped or heart-shaped.

Majorica pearls
Majorica pearls are imitation pearls. They are industrially manufactured on the Spanish Balearic island of Mallorca and are considered costume jewelry.

Mandarin Spessartina
Mandarin spessartine is sometimes also known as "mandarin garnet". This especially beautiful type of spessartine occurs in colors ranging from orange to reddish brown and is a member of the garnet group. Spessartine is named after Spessart, a region of Germany where it was first found. Nowadays the mineral is mainly mined in Burma, Brazil, China and Kenya. The best type of spessartine is a variety of mandarin spessartine that is only found in Namibia.

The marquise is a form in which precious stones can be cut. The marquise cut is named after the mistress of the King of France Louis XV. She loved this pointed oval shape and was particularly fond of faceted stones cut into a doubly pointed shape. A stoneis similar to a shuttle and is also grouped under the main title navette ("small ship"). A Marquis diamond has a table and 56 additional facets.

The matrix is the original source of natural stone, the so-called "mother stone" in which crystals grow and where they can be found.

Jewelers use the word "memoir" to describe very personal pieces of jewelry: rings with brilliant-cut diamonds that are presented as gifts to commemorate special occasions. The infinite band of the ring, which has neither a beginning nor an end, adds even greater meaning to the symbolic character of a memory. A fascinating memory ring shape is a simple, unadorned band where brilliant-cut diamonds can be added later as a reminder of special events that occurred throughout life.

Mineralogy is the branch of science that deals with the investigation of minerals. It can be divided into several subordinate parts: crystallography, that is, the science of the form, structure, chemical and physical properties of crystals; special mineralogy, which focuses on the description of minerals according to their genesis, external properties, and distribution; and petrology, that is, the science of stones, which focuses on the genesis and formation of stones and the transformation processes to which they are subjected. Studies of mineral deposits and technical mineralogy complete the spectrum of mineralogical subdivisions.

Mohs hardness scale
The Mohs hardness scale is named after its creator, the miner Friedrich Mohs (1773-1839). The scale of the Mohs arranges minerals according to their degree of resistance to mechanical scratches of their surfaces. The scale varies from one to ten. Each mineral of a given degree of hardness is soft enough to be scratched by a mineral at the next higher level and simultaneously hard enough to scratch a mineral on the previous lower level. Hardness minerals 1 are the softest; those of hardness 10 are harder. Gemstones that have scratch resistance (Mohs hardness) of 1 or 2 are classified as soft; buds in grades from 3 to 5 are medium hard; The most difficult ones of grade 6 are described as hard. The values for all minerals and gemstones were determined on the Moh hardness scale. The scale is used worldwide to classify the hardness of stones.

The momme is a Japanese unit of weight for cultured pearls. One momme is equal to 3.75 grams or 18.75 carats. This unit of weight is rarely used in the European pearl trade. Nowadays, the weight of a pearl is typically expressed in grains (a grain is equal to 0.5 grams) or carats. The latter unit is gaining popularity.

Morganite is the pale pink salmon/purple member of the vast beryl family. Because of its color, this mineral is also known as "pink beryl". The name comes from the American collector John Pierpont Morgan. Among other countries, the main sources of the stone include Afghanistan, Brazil and China.

Mother of pearl
Mother of pearl is produced by soft-bodied animals, the so-called "mollusks". Mollusks include sea mussels and snails that have so-called "epithelial cells". These cells, which produce mother-of-pearl, are responsible for building and growing the shell of mussels. Mother of pearl consists mainly of calcium carbonate, a molecule that contains calcium, carbon and oxygen. Calcium carbonate is found in pearls in the form of aragonite, which covers the inner surface of the shell in countless thin, parallel layers or gathers around a core like the peels of an onion to produce a pearl. Like a mosaic, each of the ultra-thin layers of aragonite is made up of countless plate-like aragonite crystals. The cement that connects these crystals to each other is a horn-like organic substance known as a "conchyne."

Pearls are particularly fascinating today because of their extraordinary diversity. Never before have pearls been available in a wide selection of different colors, shapes and sizes. Each type of pearl has its own color spectrum: Tahitian cultured pearls shine in gray, silver and black shades, often overwashed with a veil of red, blue or green; Freshwater cultured pearls glow white, pinkish and green, and also occur in intense red or lilac hues. When pearls of different colors are tucked into a single necklace, jewelers describe such necklaces as "multicolored" or "harlequin" chains. In addition to combining pearls of different colors, chains often also combine different types of pearls.

Many gemstones can be divided in one or more directions. Rupture occurs along perfectly flat planes. This attribute is called "sleavage" and depends on the lattice structure of the crystal. Depending on how easily a gem can be divided, one can distinguish between perfect, good and unclear splitting. A stone that cannot be divided at all has "no splitting". The splitting of a gemstone must be taken into account when cutting, polishing and setting the stone because a slight blow or excessively strong pressure can all often cause a gemstone to split.

Old cut
The old cut was invented during the nineteenth century and is the direct predecessor of the brilliant cut, which has since become the cut that is most frequently used for diamonds today. The old cut was designed with a different number and arrangement of facets than later ones has become common on diamonds. For this reason, diamonds drawn in the old cut do not look as fiery and bright as diamonds. Various other historical cuts of diamonds are sometimes found in older jewelry; Nowadays, all of them are grouped under the general title of "Diamond old cut stones".

Olivine is more commonly known as "peridot" in the jewelry world. Olivine received its name because of its pale yellow green color, close to the olive one; it numbers among the few precious stones that occur only in one color. Although olivine is not an extremely hard mineral, this stone has been valued as a precious jewel since ancient times. The deposits are located in northern Burma, Australia and Brazil. Olivine has also been identified as a component of meteorites.

Onidi is the name given to deep black chalcedony, which is a variety of quartz. Onyx is most frequently found as a multilayer stone: the material consists of many layers of black substrate and white overlapping layers. Chalcedony in its natural state can be dull or have a waxy glow. Stones with varicolor layers can be boiled in sulfuric acid. This treatment gives them a uniformly black appearance.

Orient Pearl
Orient pearl is the technical term for authentic pearls and/ or natural pearls that form inside oysters without human intervention. The cells that produce mother of pearl are normally found on the inner surface of the shell, for the growth of which they are responsible. Orienting the beads can form when some of these cells move away inward from the bivalve. This can occur, for example, when a parasite drills through the shell into the animal's body, or when a foreign body penetrates between the halves of the shell and injures the animal inside the shell. The mere penetration of a pebble or grain of sand inside the shell is not enough to cause the formation of an oriental pearl.

Oval cut
As its name explicitly states, the oval cut is a smooth oval shape for gems. This cut is derived from the brilliant cut. The main element of the oval cut is the oval table with the surrounding facets.

Padparaja is the orange-yellow variant of sapphire. Like the more familiar blue sapphire, this also belongs to the corundum group. The name comes from the Singhalese language and means "lotus flower". Gemstones with the most avidly sought after orange tone are mainly found in Sri Lanka.

Paraiba Tourmaline
Manganese and copper give it its color. And also its magic. The first neon blue Paraiba tourmaline was discovered in Brazil in the 80’s. Named after the place of its discovery, it is the rarest and most valuable variety of tourmaline. Some additional deposits were later found in Africa. But much to the disappointment of avid collectors, this gem remains extraordinarily rare. Stones weighing more than one carat are rarely found.

Pavé, the French word for "flooring," is the technical term jewelers use to describe flat surfaces of precious metal that have been "paved" with precious stones. Small gems are fixed next to each other to create a flat plane with as little visible metal as possible. As a rule, the "pavsi stones" are of equal size and were cut and polished into identical shapes. The upper facet of each stone, the so-called "table", should be located in exactly the same plane as all the other tables to achieve the incandescent and luxurious look of fine pavé.

Peacock is the technical term for a particular dark color of Tahitian pearl. This color, reminiscent of the shimmer of a peacock's feather, is a dark background shade with an intense green glow. This variant of the Tahitian pearl is among the most avidly sought after and most valuable pearls of all cultured pearls.

Pearl cultivation
Pearl cultivation was first invented in Japan at the beginning of the twentieth century. The original method is still in use today. A hazel, typically a spherula that has been transformed on the lathe by a shell, is implanted into an oyster along with a living mollusk tissue that produces mother-of-pearl. The bivalves are then returned to water and cleaned at regular intervals. Inside the shell, the implanted tissue continues to produce mother of pearl, gradually covering the kernel with layer after layer of mother of pearl. It takes at least 18 months to produce a pearl in this way. The resulting pearls are called "cultured pearls".

Pearl of the South Seas
The pearls of South Seas are the most beautiful and precious of all pearls. Their size, which varies between 10 and 20 mm in diameter, makes them particularly opulent. The pale pearls of the South Seas have a thick layer of nacre that can vary in color from white to silver, cream, gold, or even a pale gray-blue. It is this nacre that gives them their sparkling shine. The largest and most beautiful pearls of the South Seas come from Australia. Indonesia is also a major producer. The pearls of the South Seas grow inside bivalves of the species Pinctada maxima. The rarest and most expensive pearls of the South Seas are white and almost perfectly spherical.

Pearls occur in various species of freshwater and saltwater bivalves. They are among the oldest jewelry materials of humanity. In the past, pearls were extraordinarily valuable and were reserved exclusively for rich and powerful people. Orient pearls occur by chance and without human intervention. Such pearls are sometimes still found today, but they are rarely exchanged. In the years following the development of pearl cultivation at the beginning of the twentieth century, the art and science of creating cultured pearls were continuously perfected. Today more popular than ever, pearls come in many sizes, colors, shapes and varieties: for example as fresh water, Akoya or cultivated South Seas.

Peridot is a truly heavenly natural stone. It was found in meteorites that fell from space and landed on Earth. Land deposits are found at sites in northern Burma, Australia, Brazil and elsewhere. The favorite jewel of the Baroque era, the peridot is particularly attractive due to its light pistachio or yellow-green color. The Peridot numbers among the few gemstones that occur in only one color. The characteristic olive hue led miners to refer to this mineral as "olivine".

Piqué is a technical term used to classify the purity ( clarity) of diamonds. Clarity is one of the four quality criteria (the "4 Cs") according to which the value of a diamond is determined. Absolutely perfect diamonds, i.e. stones completely devoid of inclusions, are very rare exceptions. According to an internationally recognized valuation system, diamonds that clearly reveal inclusions to an unassisted eye are assigned to the "Piqué" group, which, in turn, is further divided into three subclasses: Piqué I, Piqué II and Piqué III.

Platinum was not used in jewelry until the late nineteenth century. This metal received its name from the Spanish conquistadors in South America, who called it "platina", which means "little silver" in Spanish. Platinum is the rarest and most valuable of all metals. Difficult to extract and laborious to isolate from its ore, platinum is fragile and difficult to process. The alloy that is most commonly used for jewelry is 950 platinum, which means that there are 950 grams of pure platinum in every 1,000 grams of jewel metal. The distinctive sign "PT 950" identifies this platinum quality.

Point setting
The stitch setting is a very characteristic environment with thin metal claws that protrude a gem like the fingers of a hand. The light and open environment allows the color, fire and beauty of the gem to express itself fully. Because the gem is held in place by thin pins, the stone itself appears relatively large and can receive a lot of light. The setting of the prong evolved from the claw setting where a gem was enshrined inside claws that had been carved to resemble the claws of a predatory bird.

Polish cut
The term "polish" describes the most important of the four quality criteria (the "4 Cs") on the basis of which the value of a diamond is defined. The cut given to a diamond is of decisive importance in determining its value. Only a perfect cut can give life to the diamond and allow it to fully show its fiery brilliance. A good cut reflects the light from facet to facet, makes an incident beam of light, and eventually radiates outward again from the top of the stone. If the cut is done imperfectly, the light is lost. The highest brilliance is obtained only from a diamond on which all facets are correctly proportioned and arranged.

Polishing refers to the fine treatment given to the surfaces of pieces of jewelry. The goal is to create a smooth and very shiny surface. Polishing can be done by hand, for example, with a piece of polishing wool, or with the machine, usually with a rotating disc made of leather or wool. Polishing can also be done with the help of polishing pastes. These preparations improve the smoothing effect of polishing. The different stages of work can be carried out electrochemically, chemically or in special polishing drums. Pieces of jewelry that show traces of wear can be re-polished by a goldsmith so that they regain their original glow.

Princess cut
The princess cut is a combination of the bright and emerald cuts. There are several different versions of the princess cut. The number of facets can vary depending on the specific version, and the quadratic shape can be cut into a carré with sharp or beveled corners.

Purity (clarity)
The term "purity" ("clarity") is one of the four quality criteria (the "4 C") by which the value of a diamond is determined. Absolutely perfect diamonds, i.e. stones completely devoid of inclusions, are rare exceptions. The purity of diamonds is rigorously assessed and classified according to an internationally recognized rating system. The highest grade is "IF" ("internally impeccable", i.e. no inclusion). German-speaking jewelers sometimes use the synonym word "lupenrein", meaning "pure under the wolf", to refer to stones "IF". The additional votes are: "very very small inclusions" (from VVS1 to VVS2), that is, with small inclusions invisible to the naked eye and "very small inclusions" (from VS1 to VS2).

The word "quartz" describes a large group of minerals that includes many well-known varieties of jewelry stones with identical chemical compositions and similar physical properties. Mineralogists distinguish between quartz whose crystals are visible to the naked eye (e.g. amethyst, citrine and rock crystal) and quartz whose crystals are microscopically small (e.g. agate, chalcedony and jasper). Quartz occurs in every color imaginable and is used in a variety of technologies. It serves as a raw material for the glass and ceramics industry, and quartz crystals are used as components in optical, electronic and communication applications.

Queen's Length
The phrase "Queen's Length" has a genuinely regal source: a former Queen of England loved long charcoal burners. Neck jewelry with a length of about 80 centimeters is named after her. The "Queen's Collier" is somewhat shorter than the sautoir, which reaches all the way to the waist.

The "radiant" is a special cut for diamonds. This cut is derived from the brilliant cut, but has more facets than the brilliant cut usually has. Developed by an American named Henry Grossbard, the radiant cut has exactly 70 facets, which give it its characteristic appearance.

Rhodium plating
Rhodium plating is a process by which the surface of a piece of jewelry is coated with a thin layer of rhodium. Closely related to platinum, rhodium is a very hard metal with a clear white glow. Rhodium is used to give a fresher look to the often grayish shimmer of white gold alloys. The rhodium layer also often serves as a protective coating: for example, for silver objects, because rhodium does not oxidize. Rhodium plating is applied to jewelry after it is immersed in a galvanic bath.

Rhodolite is actually a pyrope , but it was given a proper name because of its characteristic pink-red color. Pyrope belongs to the garnet group and was a fashionable stone in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The name "rhodolite" is also sometimes used to describe rose-red almandines.

The river is an old term that was previously used to assess the quality of diamonds. "River" is a term used to describe the color of a diamond. "River" is the highest level in the color scale and corresponds to "highly fine white". In the international recognized color scale of the CIBJO, this level of quality is divided into "highly fine white" and "highly fine white" and is labeled with the letters "D" and "E". The next lowest quality levels are Top Wesselton ("fine white") and Wesselton ("white").

Many diamonds joined in a long row, separated but flexibly, connected to each other, create an extraordinarily luxurious and sparkling bracelet or necklace. This is how the name of this technique for setting diamonds originated: "Rivière" is the French word for a river or a flowing mass.

Rubellite is a variety of tourmaline. It occurs in colors ranging from pink to red, sometimes with a purplish tinge. Depending on its hue, a rubellite can also be described as a "red tourmaline" or a "pink tourmaline".

Ruby received her name because of her color: the Latin word "rubens" means "red". One of the most precious gemstones in the world, a ruby can often be much more valuable than a diamond of equal size because immaculate rubies are extremely rare. The most avidly sought after stones come from the mines of Mogok (Burma) and have a unique color called "dove's blood" - a special shade of red covered with a puff of blue. Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania are important sources of rubies. It was not until 1800 that ruby was recognized as a member of the corundum group. Before that date, the word "ruby" was also applied to red and garnet thorns, otherwise all three were simply called "carbuncle stone". In the past, ruby was considered a symbol of power, courage and dignity. During the Middle Ages, it was widely believed that a ruby would darken whenever bad luck or misfortune was imminent.

The rundist, often also written "rondist", is part of a cutting of precious stones. It includes the belt that surrounds between the top and bottom of the cut. On a brilliant-cut diamond, the facets that are immediately adjacent to this separation belt are called "upper rondist facets" and "lower rondist facets". These are followed by the main facets and the table (on the upper side) and the dot or culet (on the bottom side).

Highly refractive rutile has colors ranging from reddish brown to blood red and black. Although the stone has an almost metallic glow, it does not play as important a role as a jewelry stone. Rutile has a relatively low hardness. This mineral, however, occurs as inclusions in a variety of gemstones. When it occurs as an inclusion, rutile typically appears in needle-like or hair-like shapes that create beautiful patterns and amazing lighting effects. Rock crystal and smoked quartz sometimes enclose delicate straw-yellow needles or rutile fibers known as "Venus hair." Stones containing such inclusions were eagerly sought after in ancient times.

Santa Maria
Santa Maria is the term used to describe a particularly fine quality of aquamarine with a deep blue color and avidly sought after. The name comes from the Santa Maria mine in Cear, Brazil. Brazilian aquamarines with other grades of quality are known as "Espirito Sant", "Martha Rocha", "Fortaleza" and "Marambaia". Beautiful aquamarine known as "Saint-Mary-African" are found in Mozambique.

This name can lead to careless bewilderment: the word "sapphire" comes from the Greek word for "blue". But sapphires, which belong to the corundum group, occur in every color of the rainbow. Sapphires can be green, yellow, pink or brown, and each bears the name of its color as a cognomena. When a stone is described simply as a sapphire and without further modification, then the blue variety of sapphire is typically referred to. The red member of the corundum family goes by the name "ruby", and the orange-colored member is called "padparaja". Sapphires are among the most sought after gemstones. Stones of a deep cornflower blue color are particularly precious. The most important sapphire deposits occur in Australia, Burma, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

Sautoirs are very long necklaces that hang elegantly and sensually up to the waist. With a length of 120 centimeters, sautoirs were especially fashionable in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Sautoirs are often made without clasps and often end in an ornamental pendant or tassel. In the past, the two ends of a sautoir were often pinned with a pin to the belt, shoulder of a garment, or two different positions on a dress. Other versions come with hidden closures so that the sautoir can also be worn as a multi-strand necklace or bracelet. The sautoir was Coco Chanel's favorite type of jewelry and is now sometimes also known as the "Chanel chain".

Scratch hardness
The Viennese mineralogist Friedrich Mohs (1773–1839) introduced the notion of "scratch hardness" as a way of classifying minerals. He defined the concept as the scratch resistance that a mineral shows when you try to scratch it with a sharp object. Based on this attribute, Mohs developed his hardness scale, which is the most commonly used system today to compare the hardness of precious stones. The Mohs scale assigns each mineral to one of ten degrees of hardness. (See also the Moh hardness scale.)

Gemstones typically embody the focal points of a piece of jewelry. During the long history of the goldsmith's art, jewelers have devised a variety of settings that hold the gem securely, while allowing it to optimally reveal its intrinsic color, light and fire. Although creating an environment is a task for a goldsmith, the actual insertion of a gem into its setting is performed by a specially trained craftsman known as a "setter". See also protrusion settings and frame setting.

Shuttle cutting
The shuttle cut is a narrow, pointed oval shape reminiscent of a small ship, hence the name. The table of this module is elongated, pinned to twin points and is surrounded by facets. The shape of the shuttle cut is similar to that of the marquise cut.

Signs of growth
Pearls are natural products. Although humans have learned to cultivate pearls and thus intervene in this natural process, the genesis of a pearl is still subject to the whims of Mother Nature. The cultured pearls grow inside bivalves grown in underwater "farms". Alterations in water temperature and natural variations in nutrient concentration in water affect the production of mother-of-pearl bivalves, which is the material that accumulates layer by layer to create a pearl. The serial accumulation of these layers often leads to the formation of the ridges or rings that distinguish a real pearl and that are considered signs of its natural growth.

Silver is a white, shiny, easily malleable and ductile metal. It has a number of superlative characteristics: for example, it is the most highly reflective of all metals and the best conductor of heat and electricity. Thanks to these attributes, silver is not only coveted for use in jewelry, but is also frequently used in chemical apparatus, as well as in medical and electro-technical applications. The chemical symbol for silver is "Ag";this abbreviation comes from the Latin name of silver, "argentum". Pure silver is too soft for most applications, so it is usually bonded to other metals. The phrase "sterling silver" describes an alloy in which 925 parts of pure silver are contained within every 1,000 parts of the alloy.

Snake chain
Like the reptile,the chain of snakes is elastic and flexible. Its surface is almost closed because the flat connections have the shape of scales closely connected but still completely flexible. Snake chains are particularly suitable for use as chains that carry pendants.

The word "solitaire" comes from the French language, in which it means "solitary", "alone" or "hermit". When used in the context of jewelry, the term refers to a piece of jewelry that features a single, usually large diamond as its focal point. The term is often used exclusively to describe a ring in which a solitary and majestic diamond is the undisputed focus of attention.

Stone jewelry
This phrase is a general term for all ornamental stones and stone-like materials. The term is sometimes applied only to less precious or non-transparent stones, but in most cases the phrase "jewelry stone" is used as a synonym for the phrase "precious stone". There is no clear distinction between the two terms nor any strictly defined meaning for the phrase "jewel stone".

Surface textures
No two pearls are exactly identical. Even if they come from the same species of bivalves, there can still be huge differences in quality. In addition to size, shape, color and gloss, another important criterion used to determine the value of a pearl is the nature of its surface. Uniform regularity is the most important criterion for the surface: the fewer ridges or indentations, the better the quality of the pearl. Pearls with perfectly immaculate surfaces are rare because, after all, a pearl is a natural product.

Humanity imitates nature: a synthetic is an artificial mineral that was created in the laboratory. Synthetics have the same chemical and physical properties as natural minerals. The first methods for the production of artificial stones were developed in the middle of the XIX century. The most common method is the melt-drip process in which the pulverized raw material is heated until it melts. Droplets falling from the molten material freeze into a pear-shaped body whose interior is identical to a natural crystal. Nowadays there is hardly any precious stone that cannot be imitated. Man-produced surrogates, however, must bear the additional designation "synthetic" when offered for sale.

Lapidaries use the word "table" to refer to the top glossy surface of a jewelry stone. This planar surface, which creates the impression of depth in the stone, is typically surrounded by numerous facets. In baguette-cut or emerald gems, these facets are arranged like small steps. Bright and shuttle cuts have both intertwined and triangular facets.

Tahitian pearl
The Tahitian pearl is the dark variant of the pearl of the South Seas. Especially in French Polynesia, Tahitian pearls have been cultivated since the 60s within the bival margaritifera Pinctada carrying black-lipped pears. These pearls reach impressive dimensions between 8 and 12 mm, and can occasionally even exceed 15 mm in diameter. Their rich sheen shines in shades of gray, silver and black, and is sometimes covered with a breath of shimmering red, blue or green. The most avidly sought after shade is called "peacock", which has a dark greenish shimmer similar to the showy feathers of the bird for which it is named.

Jewelry began as functional objects: for example, as amulets or talismans. In the past, people wore precious stones or special symbols to protect themselves from evil or to attract luck. Throughout history, jewelry gradually lost much of its original symbolic function and has been reduced to playing an exclusively ornamental role. Nevertheless, pieces of jewelry made in the shape of particular symbols often play more than just an ornamental role. The heart, for example, is universally understood as an emblem of love. Cruciform jewelry is often worn as a protective amulet. The trend towards charm bracelets with their many little lucky charms is a "elegant" expression of this preference.

Tanzanite is a relatively young beauty, but it is not a new mineral. First discovered in 1967, tanzanite is a specially colored zoisite variety and has so far only been found in Tanzania. The appeal of the stone comes from its usually immaculate transparency and deep blue color, which can sometimes be oriented towards purple. Some tanzanites are two-colored and covered with a purplish tinge.

Cone refers to a necklace or bracelet whose volume decreases from the midpoint towards the closure. A tapering pearl necklace, for example, has its largest pearl located at the midpoint. The diameter of the threaded pearls decreases regularly as their distance from the midpoint increases and their proximity to the closure increases.

Terrace cut
The terrace cut is one of the faceted cuts. It has a rectangular shape. The logic of the name becomes evident when you see this cut from the side: the terraced shape has characteristic "steps" leading upwards to an upper shelf or "table". This cut has been further evolved to create the emerald cut, in which the four corners of the rectangle are beveled.

Tonic colors
The value of a diamond is determined according to internationally recognised criteria (the so-called "4 Cs"). The most important criteria is color, which is defined according to an internationally uniform color scale. This scale is usually divided into 12 gradations;the top of the staircase is the highly fine white known as the "river, whilethe lowest end of the scale is reserved for tonic colors, which have a more or less intense yellowish tone and which are known, for example, as "Capo". This yellowish tone is first readily visible in stones classified "Top Cape" and is further divided into various grades that are assigned letters from "M" to "z".

Top Wesselton
No longer in widespread use, the phrase "Top Wesselton" describes a particular color of the diamond. Second only to the river, Top Wesselton is the second highest degree of diamond color and describes a "fine white". In the international color scale of CIBJO, this level of quality is divided into "fine white" and "fine white" and given the letters "F" and "G".

The name "topaz" was not applied uniformly in the past, when it was used to refer to all yellow, golden, and sometimes even green buds. Nowadays topaz is sometimes also called "precious topaz" and designates a group of precious stones whose members occur in many different colors. Most colors are pale or pastel, and their shades range from yellow to blue and from green to red and purple. The most valuable topazes have colors ranging from pink to reddish orange. Topaz most commonly occurs as a yellow stone, which sometimes is mistaken for citrin. Topaz, however, is harder and more refractive than citrine. The only weakness in topaz is its easy cleavage. Brazil is the most important source of topaz.

The tourmaline group includes stones that occur in a wide range of colors. Some color variants have proper names, for example, tourmalines whose colors range from pink to red are known as "rubellite". Black tourmalines are also known as "schàrl". The green ones are called "verdelite". Blue tourmalines are called "indigolite". Monochromatic tourmalines are quite rare. It is much more common for a tourmaline to exhibit different shades or sometimes even completely different colors, hence the name: turmali is the Singhalese word for "stone with a mixture of colors". Brazil is the most important source of tourmaline in the world.

Transparency refers to the degree to which a gem allows light to pass through it. A gemstone can be transparent, translucent or opaque. Transparency is an important factor in determining the value of a gemstone. Inclusions or cracks detract from the transparency of a stone, which is divided into several degrees. Specialists describe a gem as "transparent" when incident light is reflected unhindered, as "moderately transparent" when light is reflected with less intensity, and as "opaque" when light is completely absorbed.

The original and natural colors of many gemstones can be artificially altered. Uneven or unattractive shades of color can be enhanced by heating the buds to a temperature of several hundred degrees Celsius. The most well-known treatment is the thermal processing of amethyst: depending on the duration and temperature of the heat treatment, the color of an amethyst can be changed to yellow (citrin) or green (prasiolite). The so-called "combustion" can give a sea blue color to aquamarines that have a naturally greenish tinge and can illuminate the shade of tourmalines originally dark. These color alterations do not look all artificial and do not damage the buds.

The trillant is a cut that gives a diamond the shape of a symmetrical triangle. Diamonds cut into this form are often arranged next to colored stones or large diamonds. The "troidy" cut is another triangular cut with three convex sides and, depending on the size of the gem, from 77 to 107 facets.

No other mineral has been revered as a holy stone and talisman by so many cultures around the world. Humanity has been perpetually fascinated by turquoise and its opaque, sky-blue to apple-green color. The name, which means "Turkish stone", recalls the days when turquoise reached Europe along the trade routes that crossed Turkey. The most avidly sought after color, a light sky blue, is also the rarest shade. Most turquoise have dark veins of other minerals running through them. The best quality turquoise comes from Iran. This mineral is not particularly hard and is slightly porous. The latter attribute makes it sensitive to sweat, cosmetics and perfumes.

Ultrasonic vibrating waves are especially useful for jewelers because these sound waves can be used to clean delicate or hard-to-reach surfaces. Pieces of jewelry that need to be cleaned are immersed in a bathroom containing a cleaning liquid. Sound waves with frequencies above the limit audible to human ears create vibrations that loosen and remove fogging or dirt from treated surfaces.

Venetian chain
The Venetian chain, also known as the "Venetian box chain" or "mignon chain", evolved from the anchor chain. It consists of quadratic elements that are formed by rectangular strips of metal. As in an Erbskette, the connections of a Venetian chain are alternately connected to each other in horizontal and vertical orientation.

The term "Wesselton" is no longer widely used. Describes a particular color of the diamond. Wesselton follows River and Top Wesselton as the third highest rank in the diamond color scale. It follows "highly fine white" and corresponds to diamonds whose color is classified as "white". This quality level is assigned the letter "H" in the internationally recognized color scale of CIBJO.

Zircon is a mineral full of brightness and fire. Although its name probably comes from the Persian language and means "golden color", zircons actually occur in many different shades. Its refraction is almost as high as the diamond, but zircons are very fragile and therefore sensitive to pressure and shock. Zircon varieties include the reddish-brown yellow "iacinth zircon", the almost colorless straw yellow "zircon" and the blue "starlin", which is usually produced by heating other zircons. Zircons are found in Asia, Australia, South America, Africa and elsewhere. Natural zircon has nothing but a similar name in common with zirconia, which is a synthetic stone.

The artificial synthetic artificial stone, which best imitates a natural diamond. Its physical properties are similar to those of its noble model, and zirconia achieves excellent visual effects. Synonyms are "fianite", "phianite" and "CS" (zirconium oxide stabilized in cube). Since 1977, zerconies are produced in a wide range of sizes and shapes. Some zirconia have even been made with artificial inclusions. Zirconia should not be confused with zircon, which is a natural mineral.